Aerospace and defense contractors rely on 4D dynamic laser interferometers and optical profilers for accurate measurement of optics, optical systems and structures.
4D's vibration-insensitive laser interferometers play a critical role in space-based telescope programs. These systems make environmental chamber testing (at cryo-vacuum temperatures and pressures) possible, helping ensure excellent performance of satellite optics upon deployment. At visible, near-infrared and infrared wavelengths, a 4D dynamic laser interferometer ensures reliable performance of optics for critical roles in surveillance, tracking and directed energy.
4D Optical Surface Profilers can be mounted in situ in polishing equipment, on robotic arms, on gantries or directly on large optics to measure surface roughness on supersmooth and smooth optics.
The 4D InSpec Surface Gauge provides inspectors with handheld, high resolution measurement of surface defects and fine features. Measure defects such as corrosion and scratches, as well as fine features such as rivet depth, edge break and laser marking, with unprecedented accuracy and repeatability.
Traditionally, quality control measurements of optics are completed in tightly controlled metrology labs, with vibration isolation and extensive air flow and temperature controls.
4D Technology dynamic laser interferometers enable precision measurement right on the factory floor, without vibration isolation. 4D Twyman-Green and Fizeau interferometers allow fast, easy setup and measurement of flat and spherical optics, prisms, corner cubes and optical systems. Use the unique NanoCam Sq and FlexCam Sq to measure surface roughness on both small and large optics.
Production-oriented features and industry-leading 4Sight analysis software make it easy to test part after part, even in the presence of significant vibration and air turbulence.
4D camera products provide unique, polarization-based imaging for manufacturing, environmental sensing and image enhancement applications. Polarization helps manufacturers see what they might otherwise miss, such as stress in glass and plastic. In research, 4D’s snapshot micropolarizer cameras have found applications in such diverse fields as oceanography, cell biology and astronomy.
Measuring surface roughness and quantifying the size and position of defects are critical to the successful manufacturing of flexible electronics. For commercial roll to roll (R2R) manufacturing, rapid process feedback and high areal coverage mandate that these crucial metrology operations take place in situ, on web platforms moving at high speeds, despite the high-vibration environment and motion of the web in relation to the measurement instruments.
4D Technology’s FlexCam can measure roughness and quantify defects on webs moving at production speeds, enabling real-time monitoring and control of roughness. FlexCam also identifies and quantifies defects, registering their position within the roll. Extrinsic versus intrinsic defects can be discriminated to help isolate their root cause.
New display technologies are hitting the market virtually every day, from small, flexible screens to massive, monolithic displays. 4D metrology instruments help manufacturers ensure quality at every step of the manufacturing process. FizCam and AccuFiz systems measure the flatness and optical thickness of glass and plastic substrates, while NanoCam samples surface roughness and PolarCam identifies stress. For flexible displays, FlexCam quantifies defects in roll-to-roll processes, right on the roll, at product speeds.
Semiconductor manufacturers count on 4D measurement instruments to ensure quality throughout the manufacturing process. FizCam and AccuFiz systems measure the flatness of wafers and substrates, while NanoCam measures surface roughness and PolarCam identifies stress. FlexCam quantifies defects in roll-to-roll manufacturing on flexible electronics in situ, providing greatly improved throughput over offline metrology methods. The FizCam DUV ensures the quality of deep-ultraviolet optics used in microlithography applications, performing despite the vibration and rigorous cleanroom requirements of DUV optics manufacturing.
4D dynamic laser interferometers play critical roles in the development and production of hard disk drives. 4D systems measure flatness and surface shape of magnetic media, including both sides of glass media in a single setup. Fast acquisition enables measurement of spinning disks, to accurately assess the performance of spindles, hubs, motors and media.
Medical applications and biological research present a challenging set of requirements for measurement systems, including constantly changing subjects, difficult environmental conditions, and stringent controls, particularly for in vivo measurement.
4D systems for ophthalmic applications enable precise measurement of the shape of contact lenses and lens molds, as well as determining the shape of the eye’s tear layer in vivo.
For biological research Dynamic Interferometry® provides a unique tool that enables cell imaging in real time, at video rates, to track cellular motion and changes in cell volume. The method offers sharper cell imaging, faster acquisition and faster analysis time than other methods. Low light levels avoid phototoxicity and do not require contrast agents, enabling researchers to measure the volume, optical thickness and dry cell mass of live cells and to follow motion and processes over time.